Flu Shots: Safety
Flu Shots: Pregnancy
Flu Shots: Reduce Death
Flu Shots: Miscarriage

Flu Shot Safety

Bosaeed, M., & Kumar, D. (2018). Seasonal influenza vaccine in immunocompromised persons. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 14(6), 1311-1322.

Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Influenza (Flu).

Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Flu Symptoms & Complications

Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. (2012). The Compelling Need for Game-Changing Influenza Vaccines [PDF].

  DeStefano, F., Bodenstab, H. M., & Offit, P. A. (2019). Principal Controversies in Vaccine Safety in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Englund, J. A., Walter, E., Black, S., Blatter, M., Nyberg, J., Ruben, F. L., … & GRC28 Study Team. (2010). Safety and immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in infants: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 29(2), 105-110

 Greene, S. K., Rett, M. D., Vellozzi, C., Li, L., Kulldorff, M., Marcy, S. M., … & Jackson, M. L. (2013). Guillain-Barré syndrome, influenza vaccination, and antecedent respiratory and gastrointestinal infections: a case-centered analysis in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, 2009–2011. PLoS One, 8(6), e67185.

Heinonen, S., Silvennoinen, H., Lehtinen, P., Vainionpää, R., Ziegler, T., & Heikkinen, T. (2011). Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged 9 months to 3 years: an observational cohort study. The Lancet infectious diseases, 11(1), 23-29.

 Jefferson, T., Smith, S., Demicheli, V., Harnden, A., & Rivetti, A. (2005). Safety of influenza vaccines in children. The Lancet, 366(9488), 803-804

Kadar, M. (n.d.). Global Vaccine Market Features and Trends [PDF].

Principi, N., & Esposito, S. (2018). Vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barre’syndrome. Vaccine.

Ruben, F. L. (2004). Inactivated influenza virus vaccines in children. Clinical infectious diseases, 38(5), 678-688

 Strijbos, E., Tannemaat, M. R., Alleman, I., de Meel, R. H., Bakker, J. A., van Beek, R., … & Verschuuren, J. J. (2019). A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination in myasthenia gravis. Vaccine, 37(7), 919-925.

Treanor, J. J., El Sahly, H., King, J., Graham, I., Izikson, R., Kohberger, R., … & Cox, M. (2011). Protective efficacy of a trivalent recombinant hemagglutinin protein vaccine (FluBlok®) against influenza in healthy adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Vaccine, 29(44), 7733-7739.

van Doorn, E., Pleguezuelos, O., Liu, H., Fernandez, A., Bannister, R., Stoloff, G., … & Hak, E. (2017). Evaluation of the immunogenicity and safety of different doses and formulations of a broad spectrum influenza vaccine (FLU-v) developed by SEEK: study protocol for a single-center, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical phase IIb trial. BMC infectious diseases, 17(1), 241.

Vellozzi, C., Iqbal, S., & Broder, K. (2014). Guillain-Barre syndrome, influenza, and influenza vaccination: the epidemiologic evidence. Clinical infectious diseases, 58(8), 1149-1155.

Flu Shots in Pregnancy: Benefits to Baby

Brown, A. S., Begg, M. D., Gravenstein, S., Schaefer, C. A., Wyatt, R. J., Bresnahan, M., … & Susser, E. S. (2004). Serologic evidence of prenatal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia. Archives of general psychiatry, 61(8), 774-780

Legge, A., Dodds, L., MacDonald, N. E., Scott, J., & McNeil, S. (2014). Rates and determinants of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnancy and association with neonatal outcomes. Cmaj, 186(4), E157-E164.

Munoz, F. M., Jackson, L. A., Swamy, G. K., Edwards, K. M., Frey, S. E., Stephens, I., … & Patel, S. M. (2018). Safety and immunogenicity of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in pregnant women. Vaccine, 36(52), 8054-8061.

Parboosing, R., Bao, Y., Shen, L., Schaefer, C. A., & Brown, A. S. (2013). Gestational influenza and bipolar disorder in adult offspring. JAMA psychiatry, 70(7), 677-685

Regan, A. K., Moore, H. C., De Klerk, N., Omer, S. B., Shellam, G., Mak, D. B., & Effler, P. V. (2016). Seasonal trivalent influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the incidence of stillbirth: population-based retrospective cohort study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62(10), 1221-1227

Shakib, J. H., Korgenski, K., Presson, A. P., Sheng, X., Varner, M. W., Pavia, A. T., & Byington, C. L. (2016). Influenza in infants born to women vaccinated during pregnancy. Pediatrics, 137(6), e20152360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-2360

Zaman, K., Roy, E., Arifeen, S. E., Rahman, M., Raqib, R., Wilson, E., … & Steinhoff, M. C. (2008). Effectiveness of maternal influenza immunization in mothers and infants. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(15), 1555-1564

Flu Shots: Reducing Death and Severity

Arriola, C., Garg, S., Anderson, E. J., Ryan, P. A., George, A., Zansky, S. M., … & Yousey-Hindes, K. (2017). Influenza vaccination modifies disease severity among community-dwelling adults hospitalized with influenza. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 65(8), 1289-1297.

Ferdinands, J. M., Olsho, L. E., Agan, A. A., Bhat, N., Sullivan, R. M., Hall, M., … & Randolph, A. G. (2014). Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against life-threatening RT-PCR-confirmed influenza illness in US children, 2010–2012. The Journal of infectious diseases, 210(5), 674-683.

Flannery, B., Reynolds, S. B., Blanton, L., Santibanez, T. A., O’Halloran, A., Lu, P. J., … & Singleton, J. A. (2017). Influenza vaccine effectiveness against pediatric deaths: 2010–2014. Pediatrics, 139(5), e20164244.

Godoy, P., Romero, A., Soldevila, N., Torner, N., Jané, M., Martínez, A., … & Domínguez, A. (2018). Influenza vaccine effectiveness in reducing severe outcomes over six influenza seasons, a case-case analysis, Spain, 2010/11 to 2015/16. Eurosurveillance, 23(43).

Grijalva, C. G., Zhu, Y., Williams, D. J., Self, W. H., Ampofo, K., Pavia, A. T., … & Anderson, E. J. (2015). Association between hospitalization with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza pneumonia and prior receipt of influenza vaccination. Jama, 314(14), 1488-1497.

Restivo, V., Costantino, C., Bono, S., Maniglia, M., Marchese, V., Ventura, G., … & Vitale, F. (2018). Influenza vaccine effectiveness among high-risk groups: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 14(3), 724-735.

Rolfes, M. A., Flannery, B., Chung, J. R., O’Halloran, A., Garg, S., Belongia, E. A., … & Alden, N. B. (2019). Effects of influenza vaccination in the United States during the 2017–2018 influenza season. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69(11), 1845-1853.

Thompson, M. G., Pierse, N., Huang, Q. S., Prasad, N., Duque, J., Newbern, E. C., … & McArthur, C. (2018). Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza-associated intensive care admissions and attenuating severe disease among adults in New Zealand 2012–2015. Vaccine, 36(39), 5916-5925.

Udell, J. A., Zawi, R., Bhatt, D. L., Keshtkar-Jahromi, M., Gaughran, F., Phrommintikul, A., … & Cannon, C. P. (2013). Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis. Jama, 310(16), 1711-1720.

Vamos, E. P., Pape, U. J., Curcin, V., Harris, M. J., Valabhji, J., Majeed, A., & Millett, C. (2016). Effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in preventing admission to hospital and death in people with type 2 diabetes. CMAJ, 188(14), E342-E351.

Walker, E., & Ison, M. G. (2014). Respiratory viral infections among hospitalized adults: experience of a single tertiary healthcare hospital. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 8(3), 282-292.

Wilkinson, K., Wei, Y., Szwajcer, A., Rabbani, R., Zarychanski, R., Abou-Setta, A. M., & Mahmud, S. M. (2017). Efficacy and safety of high-dose influenza vaccine in elderly adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine, 35(21), 2775-2780.

Wong, K. K., Jain, S., Blanton, L., Dhara, R., Brammer, L., Fry, A. M., & Finelli, L. (2013). Influenza-associated pediatric deaths in the United States, 2004–2012. Pediatrics, 132(5), 796-804.

Flu Shot and Miscarriages

Bratton, K. N., Wardle, M. T., Orenstein, W. A., & Omer, S. B. (2014). Maternal influenza immunization and birth outcomes of stillbirth and spontaneous abortion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 60(5), e11-e19

Donahue, J. G., Kieke, B. A., King, J. P., Mascola, M. A., Shimabukuro, T. T., DeStefano, F., … & Hechter, R. C. (2019). Inactivated influenza vaccine and spontaneous abortion in the Vaccine Safety Datalink in 2012–13, 2013–14, and 2014–15. Vaccine, 37(44), 6673-6681.

Dudley, M. Z., Salmon, D. A., Halsey, N. A., Orenstein, W. A., Limaye, R. J., O’Leary, S. T., & Omer, S. B. (2018). Do Vaccines Cause Spontaneous Abortion?. In The Clinician’s Vaccine Safety Resource Guide (pp. 353-364). Springer, Cham.

Fell, D. B., Platt, R. W., Lanes, A., Wilson, K., Kaufman, J. S., Basso, O., & Buckeridge, D. (2015). Fetal death and preterm birth associated with maternal influenza vaccination: systematic review. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 122(1), 17-26.

Irving, S. A., Kieke, B. A., Donahue, J. G., Mascola, M. A., Baggs, J., DeStefano, F., … & Nordin, J. D. (2013). Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and spontaneous abortion. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 121(1), 159-165.

McMillan, M., Porritt, K., Kralik, D., Costi, L., & Marshall, H. (2015). Influenza vaccination during pregnancy: a systematic review of fetal death, spontaneous abortion, and congenital malformation safety outcomes. Vaccine, 33(18), 2108-2117.